- To understand the behavior and demonstrate the Implementation of OR Gate using NOR gate.
- To apply knowledge of the fundamental gates to create truth tables.
- To develop digital circuit building and troubleshooting skills.
- To understand key elements of TTL logic specification or datasheets.

IC Number | IC Name |
---|---|

74LS02 | Quad 2-input NOR Gates |

- Place the IC on IC Trainer Kit.
- Connect VCC and ground to respective pins of IC Trainer Kit.
- Implement the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
- Connect the inputs to the input switches provided in the IC Trainer Kit.
- Connect the outputs to the switches of O/P LEDs
- Apply various combinations of inputs according to the truth table and observe the condition of LEDs.
- Note down the corresponding output readings for various combinations of inputs.
- Power Off Trainer Kit, disconnect all the wire connections and remove IC's from IC-Base.

**OR GATE - ** It is a digital circuit that has two or more inputs and produces an output,which is the logical OR of all those inputs. This logical OR is represented with the symbol **‘+’**

Logic OR Gates are available using digital circuits to produce the desired logical function and is given a symbol whose shape represents the logical operation of the OR gate. Like the AND gate, the OR function can have any number of individual inputs. However, commercial available OR gates are available in 2, 3, or 4 inputs types. Additional inputs will require gates to be cascaded together to obtain the required output value

Boolean Expression **Y = A+B**

**"If either A or B is true, then Y is true"**

This OR gate produces an output Y, which is the logical OR of two inputs A, B.

**NOR GATE - ** It is a digital circuit that has two or more inputs and produces an output, which is the inversion of logical OR of all those inputs.

Logic NOR Gates are available using digital circuits to produce the desired logical function and is given a symbol whose shape is that of a standard OR gate with a circle, sometimes called an “inversion bubble” at its output to represent the NOT gate symbol with the logical operation of the NOR gate.

As with the OR function, the NOR function can also have any number of individual inputs and commercial available NOR Gate IC’s are available in standard 2, 3, or 4 input types. If additional inputs are required, then the standard NOR gates can be cascaded together to provide more inputs.

Boolean Expression **Y = ( A+B)'**

**"If both A and B are NOT true, then Y is true"**

NOR gate operation is same as that of OR gate followed by an inverter. That’s why the NOR gate symbol is represented like that.

- Make the connections according to the IC pin diagram.
- The connections should be tight on trainer kit.
- The Vcc and ground should be applied carefully at the specified pin only.

### Dual 4-Input AND Gates

#### Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Dual 4-Input AND Gates

**ICs used**: 74LS21### Hex Inverters with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS14

#### Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Hex Inverters with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS14.

**ICs used**: 74LS14### Quad 2-input NAND Gates with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS03

#### Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Quad 2-input NAND Gates with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS03.

**ICs used**: 74LS03### Quad 2-input NAND Gates with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS38

#### Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Quad 2-input NAND Gates with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS38.

**ICs used**: 74LS38### Implementation of AND Gate using NAND gate

#### Aim: To study and verify the Implementation of AND Gate using NAND gate.

**ICs used**: 74LS00