- To understand the behavior and demonstrate the Implementation of AND Gate using NOR gate.
- To apply knowledge of the fundamental gates to create truth tables.
- To develop digital circuit building and troubleshooting skills.
- To understand key elements of TTL logic specification or datasheets.

IC Number | IC Name |
---|---|

74LS02 | Quad 2-input NOR Gates |

- Place the IC on IC Trainer Kit.
- Connect VCC and ground to respective pins of IC Trainer Kit.
- Implement the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
- Connect the inputs to the input switches provided in the IC Trainer Kit.
- Connect the outputs to the switches of O/P LEDs
- Apply various combinations of inputs according to the truth table and observe the condition of LEDs.
- Note down the corresponding output readings for various combinations of inputs.
- Power Off Trainer Kit, disconnect all the wire connections and remove IC's from IC-Base.

**AND GATE - ** It is a digital circuit that has two or more inputs and produces an output, which is the logical AND of all those inputs. It is optional to represent the Logical AND with the symbol **‘.’**

Logic AND Gates are available using digital circuits to produce the desired logical function and is given a symbol whose shape represents the logical operation of the AND gate. Because the Boolean expression for the logic AND function is defined as (.), which is a binary operation, AND gates can be cascaded together to form any number of individual inputs. However, commercial available AND gate IC’s are only available in standard 2, 3, or 4-input packages. If additional inputs are required, then standard AND gates will need to be cascaded together to obtain the required output value.

Boolean Expression **Y = A.B**

**"If A and B is true, then Y is true"**

This AND gate produces an output Y, which is the logical AND of two inputs A, B.

**NOR GATE - ** It is a digital circuit that has two or more inputs and produces an output, which is the inversion of logical OR of all those inputs.

Logic NOR Gates are available using digital circuits to produce the desired logical function and is given a symbol whose shape is that of a standard OR gate with a circle, sometimes called an “inversion bubble” at its output to represent the NOT gate symbol with the logical operation of the NOR gate.

As with the OR function, the NOR function can also have any number of individual inputs and commercial available NOR Gate IC’s are available in standard 2, 3, or 4 input types. If additional inputs are required, then the standard NOR gates can be cascaded together to provide more inputs.

Boolean Expression **Y = ( A+B)'**

**"If both A and B are NOT true, then Y is true"**

NOR gate operation is same as that of OR gate followed by an inverter. That’s why the NOR gate symbol is represented like that.

- Make the connections according to the IC pin diagram.
- The connections should be tight on trainer kit.
- The Vcc and ground should be applied carefully at the specified pin only.

### 2-Input AND Gate

#### Aim: To study and verify the truth table of 2-Input AND Gate.

**ICs used**: 74LS08### Implementation of AND Gate using NAND gate

#### Aim: To study and verify the Implementation of AND Gate using NAND gate.

**ICs used**: 74LS00### 2-Input Ex-OR Gate

#### Aim: To study and verify the truth table of 2-Input Ex-OR Gate.

**ICs used**: 74LS86### Hex Inverters with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS05

#### Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Hex Inverters with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS05.

**ICs used**: 74LS05### Implementation of NAND Gate using NOR gate

#### Aim: To study and verify the Implementation of NAND Gate using NOR gate.

**ICs used**: 74LS02