Study Materials

This section covers basic electronics tutorials. If you are an absolute beginner, this section is the starting point to learn the basic electronics concepts. Once you are the done with understanding the basic concepts, head towards the electronics circuits implementation and try your hands on few circuits.


  1. Implementation of NOT Gate using NAND gate

    Aim: To study and verify the Implementation of NOT Gate using NAND gate.

    ICs used: 74LS00
  2. Implementation of AND Gate using NAND gate

    Aim: To study and verify the Implementation of AND Gate using NAND gate.

    ICs used: 74LS00
  3. Implementation of OR Gate using NAND gate

    Aim: To study and verify the Implementation of OR Gate using NAND gate.

    ICs used: 74LS00
  4. Implementation of NOR Gate using NAND gate

    Aim: To study and verify the Implementation of NOR Gate using NAND gate.

    ICs used: 74LS00
  5. Implementation of Ex-OR Gate using NAND gate

    Aim: To study and verify the Implementation of Ex-OR Gate using NAND gate.

    ICs used: 74LS00
  6. Implementation of NOT Gate using NOR gate

    Aim: To study and verify the Implementation of NOT Gate using NOR gate.

    ICs used: 74LS02
  7. Implementation of AND Gate using NOR gate

    Aim: To study and verify the Implementation of AND Gate using NOR gate.

    ICs used: 74LS02
  8. Implementation of OR Gate using NOR gate

    Aim: To study and verify the Implementation of OR Gate using NOR gate.

    ICs used: 74LS02
  9. Implementation of NAND Gate using NOR gate

    Aim: To study and verify the Implementation of NAND Gate using NOR gate.

    ICs used: 74LS02
  10. Implementation of EX-NOR Gate using NOR gate

    Aim: To study and verify the Implementation of EX-NOR Gate using NOR gate.

    ICs used: 74LS02

  11. Half Adder using NAND Gates

    Aim: To study and verify the Half Adder using NAND Gates.

    ICs used: 74LS00
  12. Full Adder Using NAND Gates

    Aim: To study and verify the Full Adder using NAND Gates.

    ICs used: 74LS00
  13. Half Subtracter Using NAND Gates

    Aim: To study and verify the Half Subtracter using NAND Gates.

    ICs used: 74LS00
  14. One Bit Comparator

    Aim: To study and verify the One Bit Comparator.

    ICs used: 74LS0474LS0874LS02
  15. Implementation of 4-Bit Magnitude Comparator using IC-74LS85

    Aim: To study and Implement 4-Bit Magnitude Comparator using IC-74LS85.

    ICs used: 74LS85
  16. Implementation of Binary to Gray code converter using logic gates

    Aim: To study and verify the Binary to Gray code converter using logic gates.

    ICs used: 74LS86
  17. Implementation of Ex-NOR Gate using NAND gate

    Aim: To study and verify the Implementation of Ex-NOR Gate using NAND gate.

    ICs used: 74LS00
  18. Half Adder Using Basic Gates

    Aim: To study and verify the Half Adder Using Basic Gates.

    ICs used: 74LS8674LS08
  19. 2-Input AND Gate

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of 2-Input AND Gate.

    ICs used: 74LS08
  20. 2-Input OR Gate

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of 2-Input OR Gate.

    ICs used: 74LS32

  21. Hex Inverting NOT Gate

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Hex Inverting NOT Gate.

    ICs used: 74LS04
  22. 2-Input Ex-OR Gate

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of 2-Input Ex-OR Gate.

    ICs used: 74LS86
  23. 2-Input NAND Gate

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of 2-Input NAND Gate.

    ICs used: 74LS00
  24. 2-Input NOR Gate

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of 2-Input NOR Gate.

    ICs used: 74LS02
  25. Quad 2-input NAND Gates with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS03

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Quad 2-input NAND Gates with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS03.

    ICs used: 74LS03
  26. Hex Inverters with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS05

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Hex Inverters with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS05.

    ICs used: 74LS05
  27. Hex Inverters with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS14

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Hex Inverters with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS14.

    ICs used: 74LS14
  28. Quad 2-input NAND Gates with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS38

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Quad 2-input NAND Gates with Open-Collector Outputs using 74LS38.

    ICs used: 74LS38
  29. Quad 2-input NAND Gates with Schmitt Trigger Inputs

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Quad 2-input NAND Gates with Schmitt Trigger Inputs

    ICs used: 74LS132
  30. Triple 3-Input NAND Gate

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Triple 3-Input NAND Gate

    ICs used: 74LS10

  31. Triple 3-Input AND Gate

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Triple 3-Input AND Gate

    ICs used: 74LS11
  32. Triple 3-Input NOR Gates

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Triple 3-Input NOR Gates

    ICs used: 74LS27
  33. Dual 4-Input NAND Gates

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Dual 4-Input NAND Gates

    ICs used: 74LS20
  34. Dual 4-Input AND Gates

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of Dual 4-Input AND Gates

    ICs used: 74LS21
  35. 8-Input NAND Gate

    Aim: To study and verify the truth table of 8-Input NAND Gate

    ICs used: 74LS30
  36. Design and implement Multiplexer using gates

    Aim: To study , design and implement Multiplexer using gates.

    ICs used: 74LS1074LS0474LS20
  37. Design and implement De-Multiplexer using gates

    Aim: To study , design and implement De-Multiplexer using gates.

    ICs used: 74LS0474LS11
  38. Design and Verify the operation BCD ripple counter using JK flip-flops

    Aim: To study, design and Verify the operation BCD ripple counter using JK flip-flops.

    ICs used: 74LS0074LS76
  39. BCD to Excess-3 code converter using logic gates

    Aim: To study and Verify the BCD to Excess-3 code converter using logic gates.

    ICs used: 74LS8674LS0474LS0874LS32
  40. One Bit Comparator using 74LS86

    Aim: To study and verify the One Bit Comparator using 74LS86.

    ICs used: 74LS8674LS0474LS08

  41. 8 Bit Comparator Using 74LS85

    Aim: To study and Verify the 8 Bit Comparator Using 74LS85.

    ICs used: 74LS85
  42. 2-Bit Up Counter

    Aim: To study and Verify the 2-Bit Up Counter.

    ICs used: 74LS76
  43. 2-Bit Down Counter

    Aim: To study and Verify the 2-Bit Down Counter.

    ICs used: 74LS76
  44. 3-Bit Up Counter

    Aim: To study and Verify the 3-Bit Up Counter.

    ICs used: 74LS76
  45. 3-Bit Down Counter

    Aim: To study and Verify the 3-Bit Down Counter.

    ICs used: 74LS76
  46. 4-Bit Up Counter

    Aim: To study and Verify the 4-Bit Up Counter.

    ICs used: 74LS76
  47. 4-Bit Down Counter

    Aim: To study and Verify the 4-Bit Down Counter.

    ICs used: 74LS76
  48. Half subtractor using basic gates

    Aim: To study and Verify the Half subtractor using basic gates.

    ICs used: 74LS8674LS0474LS08
  49. Full Subtractor using Two half adders basic gates

    Aim: To study and Verify the Full Subtractor using Two half adders basic gates.

    ICs used: 74LS8674LS0474LS0874LS32
  50. Mod 6 Counter

    Aim: To study and Verify the Mod 6 Counter.

    ICs used: 74LS9074LS08

  51. Full Adder function using 3:8 Decoder

    Aim: To study and Verify the Full Adder function using 3:8 Decoder.

    ICs used: 74LS13874LS20
  52. 8:1 Multiplexer using IC 74LS153

    Aim: To study and Verify the 8:1 Multiplexer using IC 74LS153.

    ICs used: 74LS153
  53. 4 bit Up/Down Counter using 74HC191

    Aim: To study and Verify the 4 bit Up/Down Counter using 74HC191.

    ICs used: 74HC191
  54. 4:1 Multiplexer Using IC 74LS153

    Aim: To study and Verify the 4:1 Multiplexer Using IC 74LS153.

    ICs used: 74LS153